The Dictionary is an extensive on-line reference
of film, video and audio terminology as applicable to production and post
production. While we have endeavored to create as complete a resource as
possible, the usage of some terms will vary depending on the country and region
in which it is used. Most usages are easily understood, while others tend to be
Whenever there is a term which you can not find here, you might be dealing
with new film, video, or audio production slang. For the moment, you should
query the Webmaster with any questions about words not appearing herein. We also
welcome the submission of additional terms for inclusion here.
Printing from original film stock which has been conformed into two rolls
with alternating shots and black opaque leader. This methodology will
eliminate any potential splice marks from showing up on prints and permits the
incorporation of optical effects and titles. (Film Editing)
Two or more rolls of film having alternate scenes intercut with opaque
leaders in such a way that the 'A' roll presents its picture at the same time
that the 'B' roll presents opaque leader, and vice versa. (Film Editing)
Analog to Digital Conversion.
The Advanced Authoring Format ≠ Designed as the next generation EDL, AAF is an industry initiative to create a file interchange standard for the easy sharing of media data and metadata among digital production tools and content creation applications, regardless of platform. It includes EBU/SMPTE metadata and management of pluggable effects and codecs. It allows open connections between equipment where not only video and audio are transferred but also metadata including information on how the content is composed, where it came from, etc. It can fulfil the role of an all-embracing EDL or offer the basis for a media archive that any AAF-enabled system can use.
Above the Line:
Refers to the creative elements of a production such as the writer,
producer, director and actors. Literally, these are the elements which
appeared above a bold line which divided standard production budget sheets.
Alternating Current. An electric current with periodically changing
polarity (i.e. 60 times a second for 60Hz power). (Electricity)
A light unit that emphasizes one subject. This might be a key light, a
kicker, or a backlight. (Lighting)
The tranparent cellulose acetate plastic film which for years served as
the backing for magnetic recording tape. (Sound Recording)
An organic liquid chemical used in the manufacture of some types of film
cement. Also used to clean film splicing equipment. (Film Editing)
The science of the transmission of sound waves. Generally refers to the
characteristics of auditoriums, theatres and studios with respect to their
The cutting of film from one shot to another in a way yielding the
impression that action is continuous and uninterrupted. (Film Editing)
Analog-to-Digital Converter. An electronic device used at the input of
digital audio equipment to convert analog electrical signals to digital values
whose numbers represent the level and frequency information contained in the
original analog signal. (Sound)
Automatic Dialog Replacement. Also known as "looping." A process of
re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture.
A control/timing track on the edge of videotape which contains control
data for quick and accurate location of program material.
An extremely high angle view of a subject usually taken from a crane or a
high stationary camera position, but may also refer to a shot taken from an
actual airplane or helicopter. (Production).
An undesirable distortion component that can arise in any digitally
encoded information (sound or picture).
General, nondirectional, room light. (Lighting)
The total sound in a given are which is peculiar to that space (room
tone). (Post Production)
The strength of an electronic signal as measure by its waveform height.
The nonlinear relation of input and output induced harmonics which is a
function of voltage fluctuations or power consumption. (Acoustics)
An electrical signal that continuously varies in strength as related to
some form of input.
A means of recording audio or video whereby the recorded signal is a
physical representation of the waveform of the original signal.
An optical system having different magnifications in the horizontal and
vertical dimensions of the image.
Angle of View:
This is the size of the field covered by a lens, measured in degrees.
However, because of the aperture masks in film, the angle of view for a given
lens is generally described in terms of the height and width of a lens.
The first print combining picture and sound which is submitted by the
laboratory for the customer's approval. (Laboratory)
Filtering of erroneous frequencies that are created during the analog to
digital conversion process. (Sound/Picture)
A variable opening inside a lens that regulates the amount of light
reaching the image plane. Also known as an iris. (Camera/Lighting)
A box build of a strong wood or plywood which is capable of supporting
weight. These may be of various sizes, the smallest of which is also known as
a 'pancake' because it is nearly flat. (Lighting/Grip)
A lighting unit that generates illumination from an electrical arc between
two carbon electrodes. (Lighting)
The proportion of picture width to height (1.33:1, 1.66:1, 1.85:1 or
(Hiss) Noise that is caused by minute imperfections in the surface of a
recording medium (tape). (Sound)
The exposure index or speed rating of a film which denotes the film's
The work of organizing and joining the shots of a film in the sequence in
which they will appear in the finished print. (Film Editing)
This is normally the person who acts as the liason between a production
company and the various personnel involved in the post production process.
The juxtaposition of shots in order to present contrast, comparisons or
ideas. (Film Editing)
Sound which is indigenous to the action but not precisely synchronized
with the action.
Extras who are staged and photographed to portray normal human traffic
needed to add detail in various script situations. (Production)
To reduce a signal's strength.
When wave motion in the atmosphere has a frequency that lies between 20
and 15,000 Hz it produces a sound which is apparent to the average human.
A camera attachment which records the film shot and take numbers and a
visible sync mark which corresponds to a tone fed to an audio recorder.
An indication of the emulsion position on a roll of film. An 'A' wind is a
roll with the emulsion facing the center of the roll. (Film Editing)
Usually a reference to a 1K light unit. It is also used to describe any
light unit which is smaller than a standard size unit of comparable intensity
(i.e. baby 1K, baby 2K, baby 5K, etc.). For grips, it refers to anything with
a 5/8 inch stud (i.e. baby plate). (Grip/Lighting)
A short tripod. (Camera)
A steel plate with a baby pin (5/8 inch pin) welded on to it. These plates
are used for mounting lights or grip heads on a wall, box, or other surface.
This is a term with a broad range of meanings, depending upon the context.
In production, it has the same connotation as 'atmosphere', meaning extras who
are staged to supply detail in the form of normal human traffic in a scene. In
sound, it can mean the same as 'ambience' or it may refer to relative volume.
Prerecorded accompaniment for a singer or voiceover actor who then listens
through headphones to a replay as he/she performs. Generally, the two signals
are ultimately mixed to produce the final recording. (Post Production)
A light which is generally mounted behind a subject to light the subject's
hair and shoulders without illuminating a subject's front. (Lighting)
An audio circuit with 3 wires, two which carry signal, and a third which
is contected to a ground (grounded). (Sound)
On magnetic-striped film, a narrow band of magnetic coating applied to the
edge opposite the magnetic sound track which serves to make the film lie flat
when it goes over magnetic sound heads.
Bar Sheets - Lead Sheets:
A chart showing words of dialogue which have been recorded, and the number
of motion picture frames of duration for each syllable.
Folding doors which are mounted on to the front of a light unit in order
to control illumination. (Lighting)
A splice made with the base side of the end of one piece of film
overlapping the base side of the piece to which it is being attached. (Film
Similar to a 2K stand, but without support legs. It has a junior hole at
one end and a junior stud at the other, and it usually has a sliding riser.
A periodic variation of amplitude resulting from the addition of two
slightly different frequencies. (Sound)
A 2K pigeon on an apple box. (Lighting/Grip)
Background music used underneath a narrator or foreground dialog.
Primarily applied to commercial radio or television spots.
The output of a light. (Lighting)
A heavy duty 2K stand without wheels. (Lighting/Grip)
A short duration sound track tone aligned to a point on the film for
precise reference in synchronization in the editing and printing processes.
Below the Line:
Refers to the technical elements of the production staff. Literally, these
are the budget elements that appeared below a bold line on a standard
production budget form. (Production)
The assistant chief lighting technician or the assistant to the key grip.
A reference to a storage container lined with a cloth bag, into which cut
film or sound stock may be arranged and hung. In digital audio and video
terms, this can be related to a film and/or directory from which stored shots
or sound segments are selected for use.
A minor acting role in which an actor may only speak a few lines.
Opaque film leader used in conforming original film for A and B roll
printing. (Film Editing)
Black Aluminum foil which is used for wrapping lights, to control light
spill, and for making small flags. (Grip/Lighting)
A sync pop. This is usually done by placing a piece of 'toned' tape on a
particular frame of film to establish a 'synch' point. (Film Editing)
Plotting actor, camera and microphone placement and movement in a
production or scene. (Production)
An open face 2K lighting unit, also known as a 'mighty'. (Lighting)
The sound produced in an energized amplifier and speaker system when a
film splice passes the photo cell to which the amplifier is connected.
Any method of silencing unwanted noise produced by the passage of a splice
through a sound reproducer. Traditionally, a small opaque tape is fixed over a
splice. (Post Production)
Tape used to cover unwanted portions of sound tracks.
A film enlargement from a smaller gauge of film to a larger gauge (i.e.
16mm to 35mm).
Black mesh cloth which is used for grip scrims. It also is available in
rolls for darkening windows. (Grip/Lighting)
A telescoping arm for a camera or microphone which might be available in a
variety of sizes from the very small handheld types to the very large, which
might be transported as an integral part of a motor vehicle. (Production)
A flag or cutter which is used to keep light off of the floor or the lower
part of a scene. (Grip/Lighting)
A fee or allowance paid to a crewmember for providing his/her own
equipment or other specialized apparatus for use in a production. (Production)
A pipe-like unit with a locking nut which is used to hold branches, wooden
poles, or other items. (Grip/Lighting)
The separation of a roll of camera original negative (or in some cases a
workprint) into its individual takes or scenes. (Film Editing) Also a very
common term which refers to a preproduction function where discrete elements
of a script are isolated and noted. (PreProduction)
A guide line attached to anything being hauled up on a crane or by a
A rectangular open-faced light which is used for general fill or for cyc
A brute arc light, usually 225 amps DC powered.
A device which magnetically aligns all of the iron oxide molecules on a
magnetic tape or film, thus eliminating any 'sound' on them.
Burn-in Time Code:
A videotape in which a "window" displaying the time code count on the tape
is superimposed over part of lhe picture.
A mixing network that combines the output of two or more channels.
A film splice in which the film ends come together without overlapping.
A film splice made by joining the two pieces of film, without an
overlapping portion, usually by applying both heat and pressure. (Film
Butterfly (Butterfly Kit):
Assorted nets, silks, solids, and grifflons which are used for light
control; usually 5' x 5', or 6' x 6' frame size. Commonly a 12' x 12' or 20' x
20' is called a butterfly kit, however, it they should be called an overhead
A producer who thinks he knows more about a film technicians job than the
tech himself knows. (Film) Someone who changes lanes without looking.
An indication of the emulsion position on a roll of film. A 'B' Wind
indicates that the emulsion is facing out, or away, from the center or core of
the film roll. (Film Editing)
Ordinary wooden clothespins which are used to secure gels to barndoors.
They are also known as a #1 wood clamp. (Grip/Lighting)
A general purpose grip stand. (Grip/Lighting)
California Scrim Set:
A scrim set with two doubles. (Lighting/Grip)
A form which refers to all of the scenes to be filmed and all of the
personnel and equipment required for shooting on a particular day.
The view point chosen from which to photograph a subject. (Cinematography)
The process of notating the changing position of the camera, lens size,
and focus during a particular scene. (Production)
A record sheet giving details of the scenes or shots photographed on a
particular roll of negative.
Small wooden wedges, usually 4 inches long by 1/2 wide at the thickest
A feeder cable connector which is similar to a Tweco, but with a more
positive locking mechanism which is easier to disconnect. (Grip/Lighting)
A unit of light intensity, a standard candle. (Lighting)
Often described as a 'Dutch Angle' or 'Dutching'. This is a device or
process whereby the camera is angled so that the horizontal frame line is not
parallel to the horizon. (Production)
An electrical component's ability to store electrical charges. (Post
Color compensating filters made in precise density values of the primary
and secondary colors. (Cinematography)
The phenomenon where an input signal exceeds the capability of electronic
or digital equipment to reproduce the signal. This results in an audible
distortion (analog) or an incomprehensible noise (digital). (Sound)
CD (Compact Disc):
A digitally encoded disc capable of containing more than one hour of music
at a sampling frequency of 44.1 khz. The data is read by a laser beam. (Sound)
A type of cookie which is made from wire mesh coated with plastic.
A standard position for the placement of the audio signal on magnetic
film. The placement is in a narrow band centered between the two edges of the
Century Stand (C-Stand):
A multipurpose grip stand. (Grip/Lighting)
Chain Vise Grip:
A vise grip with a chain that is used for its clamping capability. (Grip)
A mark at the end of a release print reel to indicate the moment at which
to switch over to the next reel on the second projector. (Film)
A technique of splicing A/B rolls in order to eliminate the image of the
film splice from the duplicates or to allow for rapid readjustments of optical
printer settings from shot to shot. (Film Editing)
These are marks which may result if the center of a roll of film is
rigidly held while the outside end is moved. (Film Editing)
A trade name for a system of anamorphic widescreen
A short test print in which each frame has been printed at a different
exposure level. (Film/Laboratory)
A prerecorded track of electronic metronomic clicks used to ensure proper
timing of music to be recorded. Essential in music scoring sessions. (Music)
Coded Edge Numbers:
A system of marking films with a series of sequential numbers for the
purpose of maintaining an established synchronous relationship. (Film Editing)
A six pocket stage box that can be converted from three-phase four-wire to
single phase three-wire operation. (Lighting)
A heavy duty 2K stand without wheels. It is called a combo because it can
be used for both reflectors and lights. (Grip/Lighting)
Refers to a device that compresses an input signal and expands the output
signal in order to reduce noise. (Sound)
An insurance guarantee that principal photography on a given film will be
completed. It indemnifies a production against the unforeseen costs of any
type, whether or not they result from problems which are covered by other
types of insurance.
A motion picture print with both picture and sound on the same strip of
The reduction of a span of amplitudes done for the purpose of limiting the
reproduction of those amplitudes. (Post Production)
The simplest type of microphone in which the capacitance (electrical
charge) is varied by sound, causing movement in one plate (diaphragm) in
relation to a fixed backplate. (Sound)
A designated amount of a budget which is added in anticipation of
potential cost overruns.
A method of printing in which both the original and the raw stock move
continuously past the point of exposure. (Laboratory)
A recorded track used to adjust or manipulate a recording or playback
device. Generally, these are used to maintain consistent playback speed of
video and/or sound recorders consistent with the recorded speed. (Post
A perforated material which is used to break up light or create a shadow
pattern. Also known as a cucoloris. (Grip/Lighting)
A plastic cylinder on which film is wound for transport or storage.
A chemical incorporated into the emulsion of color film stocks which
produces a dye image associated with the developed silver image.
A device for measuring lengths of film by counting the number of frames.
An indeterminate number of more detailed shots which are intended to be
intercut with a master shot or scene. (Production)
A location which is kept in reserve to serve as an alternate shooting site
in case the chosen shooting site is unusable. It is most commonly used in the
context of shooting planned for an out of doors location. (Production)
Color printing filters made in precise density values for the colors;
yellow, cyan, and magenta. (Cinematography)
Color Reversal Intermediate. This is a duplicate color negative which is
made by the reversal process. (Laboratory)
Short pieces of lumber which are used for various grip purposes.
The gradual mix of sound sources accomplished by the simultaneous
manipulation of two or more mix console faders. (Post Production)
Tests which are used to determine the correct negative and print densities
for a variable area optical sound track. (Sound)
The frequency at which a signal is split in order to feed separate parts
of a loudspeaker system. (Sound)
In stereo, this is the breakthrough between channels measured as
separation (in decibels) between the wanted sounds of the desired channel and
the unwanted sounds from the second channel. (Sound)
A perforate material used to break up light or create a shadow pattern.
Also known as a cookie. (Grip/Lighting)
A term with a broad range of meanings depending on the particular context.
For Voice-Over Narration or Dialogue Replacement: The marking of the cue point
in a way which will permit a signal to be given to the 'talent' to begin each
element of work at the appropriate time. In General: Any system used by a
second person to signal 'talent' that recording should begin.
A piece of self adhesive magnetic or metallic material placed on the edge
of film as a means of actuating a printer light change or an automatic stop on
a projector. (Film Editing)
Wooden blocks with a dish or indentation in the center which are used to
keep the wheels of light stands from moving. (Grip/Lighting)
A single shot inserted into a sequence of shots that momentarily
interrupts the flow of action, usually introducing a pertinent detail.
The selection and assembly of the various shots or sequences for a reel of
A blue-green color which is the complementary color to red.
Row lights for evenly illuminating a cyclorama or other background.
Permanent background built in a studio which is nearly always coved or
curved at the floor line to create a shadowless, unending backdrop.
The first positive prints made by the laboratory from the negative
photographed on the previous day. It also now refers to video which is
transferred from that original negative. (Laboratory)
A floor built of 3/4 inch plywood which is usually covered with masonite
to provide a smooth surface for free-form dollying. (Grip)
DAT (Digital Audio Tape):
Two-channel digital audio has become increasingly common as a professional
master reference and for use in field recording. (Sound)
DAW (Digital Audio Workstation):
A computer-based recording and editing machine used for manipulating
Day Out of Days:
A form designating the workdays for various cast or crewmembers of a given
A form which lists the pertinent details of salary, guaranteed conditions,
and other essentials of a work agreement negotiated between a member of the
cast or crew and a production company.
The device which reads the enclosed signal or pulse and turns it into some
form of usable information.
A style of cinematography and staging that uses relatively wide angle
lenses and small lens apertures by maintaining objects in the extreme
background and foreground simultaneously focused. (Cinematography)
A place in which a sound waves are canceled by reflections arriving out of
phase with the wanted signal thus creating an area of silence or poor
An editorial term meaning that sound and picture elements are perfectly
aligned. (Film Editing)
A device used to erase recordings on magnetic tapes and films or to
demagnetize magnetic recording heads.
A factor which indicates the light-stopping power of a photographic image.
Depth of Field:
The amount of space within lens view which will maintain acceptable focus
at given settings (i.e. camera speed, film speed, lens aperture).
The chemical process which converts a photographic exposure into a visible
A 2K fresnel lighting unit. (Lighting)
Director's Guild of America. A union which represents directors, assistant
directors, production managers, and various video personnel.
A sound track which carries lip sync speech. (Sound)
A device designed to permit simultaneous winding of film on more than one
reel at a time even though the diameters of the rolls are unequal. (Film
A reference to a system whereby a continuously variable analog signal is
reduced and encoded into discrete binary bits that establish a mathematical
model of an original signal or other information.
A method of recording in which samples of the original analog signal are
encoded on tape or disk as binary information for storage or processing. The
signal can then be copied repeatedly with no degradation. (Sound)
A device for varying power to the lights. (Lighting)
Branches which are placed in front of a light as a cookie would to cut the
light and provide a shadow pattern. (Grip/Lighting)
A transition between two scenes where the first merges imperceptibly into
the second. (Film/Video)
A modification of the original signal appearing in the output of audio
equipment which had not been present in the input. (Audio)
The variation in response or perception for different angles of sound
This is a 5.1 channel digital film format that if optically recorded on to
a film release print in the blocks of space located between the film's
sprocket holes. (Sound)
Spectral Recording. An encoding/decoding noise reduction system developed
by Dolby Laboratories and used increasingly in film sound.
Any shot made from a moving dolly. These may also be called tracking or
traveling shots. (Production)
A plywood dolly with four soft tires which is narrow enough to fit through
a doorway. It is used to carry a camera on a tripod or for transporting other
heavy items. (Grip)
Small nets and flags used to control light. (Grip/Lighting)
Sound and picture on separate transports. This refers to the normal
methodology of recording the picture on a camera while recording sound of a
separate magnetic tape recorder. (Film)
Flutter which occurs at random rates. (Acoustics)
The process of inserting recorded audio by playing up to a chosen point
and switching from playback to record mode. (Video/Audio)
American system of time code generation that adjusts the generated data
every minute to compensate for the spread of the NTSC television system
running at 29.97 frames per second.
Loss of a portion of a signal, usually due to a loss of a tape's oxide
coating or due to dirt or grease covering a portion of a tape.
This is a film sound system which utilizes a CD-ROM disc which is
sychronized to film by means of timecode which is optically encoded into the
exhibition film print. (Sound)
To make a taped copy of any progam source record, CD, tape. Also, the copy
itself. Sometimes used to refer to the ADR process. (Audio/Video)
Term generally used in California but to refer to the room where the final
audio mix is made for a program or film. It might also be known as a mix
A high quality sound reproducer which is mixed with outputs from other
dubbers that are generally loaded with sprocketed magnetic film. (Post
An actor's voice synchronization with lip movements which are not the
originally recorded sound. This is used to replace unusable dialogue or
recordings, and also used to prepare foreign films for new markets. (Post
A copy of a negative. Short for duplicate negative.
This is the process where a camera is angled so that the horizontal frame
line is not parallel to the horizon. (Production)
A heavy black cloth, treated with fire proofing material, which is used
for blacking out windows, making teasers, hiding cables, and hundreds of other
Alteration of volume range of a sound when it is transmitted. (Acoustics)
The difference in decibels between the loudest and quietest portions of
To put a flag up on the side of a lighting unit to block light. Better
known as a 'sider'. (Grip/Lighting)
European Broadcast Union. This generally identifies a 25 FPS time code
A sound wave that has been reflected and returned with sufficient
magnitude and delay to be perceived as a wave distinct from that which was
Coded numbers printed along the edged of a strip of film for
A standard position for the placement of the audio on a single perforation
An ordinary household plug with two flat blades and a ground pin.
Edit Decision List (EDL):
The list of SMPTE codes, in footage and frames, and including instructions
for fades, dissolves and other special effects which corresponds to all the
segments that the editor of a film or videotape production has decided to use
in the final cut.
Video industry term for the tape containing the finished (edited) program.
Also known as "edit in" and "edit out." The beginning and end points of an
edit when a video program or soundtrack is being assembled.
Effective Output Level:
The microphone sensitivity rating defined as the ratio in dB of the power
available relative to sound pressure. (Acoustics)
The gelatine layer of photo-sensitive material in which the image is
formed on film. (Film)
The shape of the graph as amplitude is plotted against time. A sound's
envelope includes its attack, decay, sustain and release (ADSR). (Sound)
General low level sound coming from the action of a film, which can either
synchronous or nonsynchronous.
The alteration of sound frequencies for a specific purpose, such as to
remove 'noise' frequencies or to improve speech clarity.
A microphone in a completely silent room still generates some residual
noise. This noise can be measured and can be computed. That computation is the
'Equivalent Noise'. (Acoustics)
Usually a long shot at the beginning of a scene which is intended to
inform the audience about a changed locale or time for the scene which
An incandescent lamp used to supply nonvarying luminous energy to a
photoresponsive cell. Used in film projectors to illuminate the optical sound
The film digital sound exhibition standard which utilizes five output
speaker channels (left, center, right, right surround, left surround, and
An optical effect in which the image of a scene is gradually replaced by a
uniform dark area or vice versa.
The camera assistant's motto. Everything he/she must do before each shot
(Focus, Aperture, Shutter, Tach). (Camera)
A 650 watt PAR light with daylight balance dichroic fliter. (Lighting)
Moving a 'flag' closer to or further away from a light source that it is
in front of will feather (soften/harden) the shadow on the surface upon which
the light falls. (Grip/Lighting)
Lines of dialogue which are read outside camera range for the benefit of
an 'on camera' or 'on microphone' actor or voice over artist.
Film leader used to fill in the blanks in picture workprint. (Film
The flexible, usually transparent support on which photographic emulsions
and magnetic coatings are carried. (Film Editing)
A common term for the welding solvent used in splicing film. (Film
A device used to punch out a small portion of the edge of a piece of film
in order to permit electrical contacts on a printer to come together and thus
activate light changes. (Film Editing)
A transparent material having the ability to absorb certain wavelengths of
light and transmit others.
Small flags used to control light. (Grip/Lighting)
The removal of unexposed silver halides from the film during processing.
Usually an agreement to perform work or provide a service for a fixed fee
or wage which will not be affected by overtime restrictions of unexpected
costs. Also used in terms of sets and set construction elements which are
generally used to create walls.
A modern film or sound editing system where reels are laid horizontally on
"plates" on a mechanized table with sound and picture heads.
The alternation of light and dark which can be visually perceived.
Periodic vertical movement of the image which occurs as a result of
mechanical faults in the camera, printer, or projector.
The widest beam spread on a lensed light. (Lighting)
An optical effect in which the picture is shown reversed from left to
The rapid period variation of frequency caused by unsteadiness of the film
or tape drive. (Sound)
An amount of light which is present as measured in lumens.
Polystyrene which is sandwiched between paper. It is used to relectors,
soft boxes, and other items because it is stable and easily cut.
The refocusing of a lens during a shot to keep a moving subject in focus
or to change the person or object of attention. (Cinematography)
The minimum density of the unexposed area of processed film.
Creating sound effects by watching picture and mimicking the action, often
with props that do not exactly match the action.
The size or aspect ratio of a motion picture frame.
The individual picture image on a strip of motion picture film. Also, one
complete screen on videotape.
The frequency at which film or video frames run (i.e. 24 fps; 29.97 Hz in
NTSC; 25 Hz in PAL European format).
An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated so as
to appead stationary when it is projected.
The number of times a signal vibrates each second as expressed in cycles
per second (cps) or Hertz (Hz). (Sound)
Exaggeration or diminution of particular frequencies in relation to
This represents the sensitivity of a given sound, video, or other
A stepped convex lens. It is most commonly used to descripe
tungsten-incandescent lamps. (Lighting)
Film which is coated with an iron oxide compound on which sound is
recorded and from which sound is reproduced.
The chief lighting technician for a production who is in charge of the
The ratio of the signal level at the output of an audio device to the
signal level at its input. Expressed in decibels (db).
The degree of contrast in a negative or print.
A synchronizing device having more than One sprocketted wheel which is
used to set up synchronized relationships between film and sound tracks which
have been recorded to magnetic film. (Film Editing)
The aperture assembly at which the film is exposed in a camera, printer,
A unit for measuring computer memory capacity, equivalent to 1,000
A grip head or "C" stand head used as a clamping device for holding other
The process of selecting the printing values for color and density fo
successive scenes in a complete film to produce the desire visual effects.
A durable material made of three ply high density rubber. The material is
attached within a frame and used as either a soft reflector of sunlight or cut
or soften direct sun. It generally comes in three sizes: 6' X 6', 12' x 12',
and 20' x 20'. (Grip/Lighting)
This is Duct tape style tape, also known as gaffer's tape or cloth tape.
A device used for butt splicing film with splicing film. (Film Editing)
Kelvin, the unit of measurement used for absolute temperatures and color
A brand name for a common 'flatbed' film editing machine. (Film Editing)
The chief grip who works directly with the gaffer in creating shadow
effects for set lighting and who supervises camera cranes, dollies and other
platforms or supporting structures according to the requirements of the
director of photography. (Production)
The main light on a subject. (Lighting)
Numbers placed on the edge of the film stock by the manufacturer as a
unique identification point (35mm - every 16 frames: 16mm - every 20 frames).
An object with a shine or reflection on it from another object.
The four playback channels used in 35mm motion pictures, now available on
home hi-fi systems. L, C and R speakers are located behind the screen. The S
channel surrounds the audience and may be mono or encoded stereo.
A reference to the bulb inside a lighting unit, but may sometimes be used
to refer to the entire lighting unit. (Lighting)
The range between overexposure and underexposure in which a film will
still produce usable images. (Camera)
A small microphone that can be easily hidden on a piece of clothing so as
not to be seen by the camera.
Transfer of the finished audio mix back onto the video edit master.
Transfer of audio and time code from the video edit master to an audio
Transfer of audio onto multitrack tape or hard disk. Also referred to as
A plastic sheeting material, available in varying widths, that is
optically clear and used to protect camera personnel from explosions or the
results of other action. (Grip/Camera)
A length of nonimage film which is used for threading, identification, or
fill-in purposes. (Film Editing)
An ellipsoidal reflector spot light. Usually used for theatrical purposes.
The ratio of an acoustic quantity to a reference quantity. A measurement
of amplitude in decibels. (Acoustics)
Stock footage shot or other footage which is germane to a given visual
presentation but which was not generated for that specific film or television
presentation. (Film Editing)
Film which was fully exposed to light which is then used as leader. (Film
A reference to a fast acting, variable opening shutter to control the
light intensity in printing film. (Laboratory)
The relationship of sound ad picture that exists when the movements of
speech are perceived to coincide with the sounds of speech.
A printing system in which the original is immersed in a liquid at the
moment of exposure. This is done in order to reduce the adverse effects of
surface scratches and abrasions.
A continuous sound track that runs repeatedly in playback as a guide for
re recording. (Post Production)
Low Contrast Original:
An original reversal film which is designed to yield prints having good
A heavy duty rolling stand, usually with a combo head, but without the
height of a 'highboy'. (Grip/Lighting)
A high contrast lighting style with lost of shadows and large areas of
A filter that attenuates frequencies above a specified frequency and
allows those below that point to pass.
Strong leader threaded through a film processing machine which is used to
pull film through the machine during its operation. (Laboratory)
A small adjustable clamp with a baby stud which can be interchanged with a
variety of accessories. (Grip)
A red-purple color which is the complementary color of green.
Magnetic Film (mag film):
Film which is coated with an iron oxide compound on which sound is
recorded and from which sound is reproduced.
A phenomenon whereby one or more sound "trick" the ear into not hearing
other, weaker, sound that are also present. (Audio)
Master (print master):
A positive print made specifically for duplicating purposes. (Laboratory)
Match Cut (match-action cut):
A cut made on action or movement between two shots in which the action has
been overlapped either by repetition of the action or by the use of more than
one camera. (Film Editing)
A dissolve linking images which have similar content. (Film Editing)
A cut from one shot to another shot having an image of the same general
shape as the one in the prior shot. (Film Editing)
Arranging for the impedances presented by a load to be equal to the
internal impedance of the generator. This is essential to avoid loss of power.
In microphones, the loss results in poorer signal-to-noise ratio. Matching is
done by means of a transformer. (Acoustics)
The process of aligning or overlapping the shots of a film sequence in
order to achieve a smooth transition from the action in one shot to the action
of the succeeding shot. (Film Editing)
A 9 light unit with (9) 1000 watt PAR 64 lights. (Lighting)
The acronym for megabytes which is a measure of computer storage
capability; the equivalent of 1,000 bytes.
This refers to the music and effects tracks which are combined into one
(or a stereo pair) for use with foreign language re recording of a film or
An grip arm-like accessory which is designed to clamp onto the hand rail
of a studio overhead catwalk, or other suitable surface, and has a gobo head
at the end of the arm. (Grip)
A trade name for a small plastic clip which is used to hold film ends
together during film assembly. (Film Editing)
An open faced 1K lighting unit. Also known as a 'Redhead'. (Lighting)
The nominal load impedance for a microphone indicates the optimum matching
load which utilizes the mike's characteristics to the fullest extent.
Impedance is a combination of dc resistance, inductance and capacitance, which
act as resistances in ac circuits. An inductive impedance increases with
frequency; a capacitative impedance decreases with frequency. Either type
introduces change in phase. (Acoustics)
Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A machine protocol that allows
synthesizers, computers, drum machines and other processors to communicate
with and/or control one another. (Sound)
Electrically combining the signals from microphones, tape, and/or
reproducers and other sources. (Post Production)
Mix Cue Sheet (cue sheet):
A sheet having several columns for notations of footage, fades. volume
levels, and equalizations which are used in mixing sound tracks where each
column usually represents one track.
The assembly of shots and the portrayal of action or ideas through the use
of many short shots. (Film Editing)
Silent filming. Traditionally explained as Motion Omit Sound.
A lighting style in which the light sources imitate existing sources, such
as lamps or windows. (Lighting)
A trade name for an upright film editing machine.
(Mid-Side). A stereo microphone technique where two microphones are
incorporated into a special configuration for recording. (Audio)
In film, used to refer to a final mix that includes more than stereo
information (i.e., LCRS or six-channel surround formats).
An audio tape recorder capable of handling more than two tracks of
An array of permanently crane mounted HMI lights. (Lighting)
( 1) For a black-and-white image those tonal values which are the opposite
of those in the original subject. (2) For a color image, those color values
which are the complement of those in the original subject. (Film Editing)
A bobbinet on a frame used to cut lighting intensity by either a half stop
or full stop. (Grip/Lighting)
Neutral Density (ND):
Colorless filters that reduce the amount of light in controlled degrees.
Usually refers to the classic black and white film noir style used in
detective mysteries, typically employing hard lighting and dark, low key
In audio systems, noise is the electrical interference or other unwanted
sound introduced into the system (i.e. hiss, hum, rumble, crosstalk, etc).
A recess on the edge of a piece of film which automatically triggers a
mechanism effecting some modification of the duplication process, commonly a
change of exposure light intensity. (Film Editing)
National Television Standards Committee. The organization that sets the
American broadcast and videotape format standards for the FCC. Color
television is currently set at 525 lines per frame, 29.97 frames per second.
The interval between two sounds having a basic frequency ratio of 2 to 1.
The videotape editing process whereby the final edit list is compiled,
usually in a more inexpensive edit room, in preparation for the on-line edit.
Outside the range of the standard light values of a printer. (Laboratory)
A print made with a single printer light setting for all shots in the film
being printed. A common method to produce a 'daily' color print. (Laboratory)
The videotape editing process that creates the final video edit master,
including effects, from the offline edit list. (Video)
The ratio of the amount of light falling on a surface to the amount of
light which is transmitted. (Lighting)
Any strip of flexible, optically opaque material used to space picture in
A/B roll film cutting and editing. (Film Editing)
A laboratory or print procedure in which shots are modified by use of an
optical printer. These are most commonly seen as fades and dissolves, however,
it can include a wide range of special effects procedures. (Laboratory)
A printer in which an image of the original is transferred to raw film
stock by means of light and a lens system. (Laboratory)
A sound track in which the recording uses variation of a photographic
A film recording system replayed by scanning the stereo tracks by means of
a photo cell lamp.
The first scene of a dissolve or wipe effect which changes into the
second, or incoming scene.
A take of a scene which is not used for printing or for the final assembly
of a film.
Overlapping and Matching Action:
Repeating part of the action in one shot at the beginning of the next
shot, or covering the action with two or more cameras, then matching the
overlaps on the editing table for the purpose of making a smooth cut on
action. (Film Editing)
A combination of several creative elements such as a script, actor/s, and
director which is used to attract interest in a production for the purposes of
obtaining financing or distribution.
PAL (Phase Alternating Line):
The European color television standard that specifies a 25Hz frame rate
and 625 lines per frame.
A horizontal movement of a camera on a fixed axis.
Temporary Scaffolding, used as a platform for the camera, lighting, or
other rigging. (Grip/Lighting)
Pay or Play:
A contract provision which commits the production company to compensate a
cast or crew member for a project whether or not that project ever goes into
This is a shifting of output voltage relative to input by an amount which
is disproportional to frequency. This will not detectable until it an
The displacement of a waveform in time. Some electrical components
introduce phase shift into a signal. When various frequencies are displaced
differently, distortion occurs. Electrical cancellation may occur when two
equal signals are out of phase by 1~3()¡. However, this may also be used are a
encoding method where the shift is removed on playback (similar to the method
in which a Dolby Surround sound track is encoded and played back. (Post
A method of remotely powering the preamplifier or impedance converter
which is buitlt into many microphones by sending a voltage along the audio
The timing relationship between two signals. (Audio/Electronics)
Reshooting a portion of a scene, the rest of which was acceptably filmed
in a previous take.
A sine wave signal, recorded by various field audio recorders at a known
frequency, which is used to resolve the tape speed on playback to retain sync
with film camera footage.
A component of a camera or printer mechanism which engages with a
perforation hole to move and locate film for exposure.
A sound signal that has an equal amount of energy per octave or fraction
of an octave. (Sound)
The distance between two successive perforations along a strip of
film.(Film) The frequency of audible sound (Sound).
A background for any type of process shot. (Laboratory)
A technique of filming music action first, the playing the music through
loudspeakers while performers dance, sing, etc.
The black image on a print of a scratch on the positive from which the
print was made. (Film Editing)
The period in a project's development that takes place after the picture
is delivered, or "after the production." This term might also be applied to
video/film editing or refer to audio post-production.
Any light that appears in the scene. (Lighting)
An electronic device that boosts extremely weak signal voltages, such as
those from microphones or mag heads, to a level that is usable by power
A video tape which has already had a control track, usually with SMPTE
encoded time code, but without any picture or sound. This is done to
facilitate the video editing or assembly process.
Recording of music or other sound prior to the shooting of the picture
which is to accompany it. The most common usage is in animated film. (Sound)
The main photography of a film and the time period during which it takes
The relation between the picture and sound components in which they are
printed to give the necessary displacement for projection as a composite
A device used on many film viewers, editing machines, and some high-speed
cameras, consisting of a rotating prism of four or more sides through which
the viewer light passes as film is pulled continuously through it. (Film
A shot that will be composited from two other shots. The background part
of this process is called a 'plate'. (Laboratory)
A duplicate negative prepared in the final form for release printing.
Recording and/or mixing sound on location during the film or video shoot.
Typically this has been recorded to an analog Nagra reel-to-reel machine,
though DAT recorders and other digital formats are now making significant
An original reversal film which is designed to have normal contrast when
projected. (Film Editing)
A short length of film having standard markings on it, used to enable
projectionists to make instant changeovers from one projector to another.
A device for punching a hole in film leader to locate a starting point for
editorial or printing synchronization. (Film Editing). Also refers to specular
A frame carrying film in a processing machine. Ofter used to refer to
frame edit alignment in which the projected film remains properly framed on
the screen (in rack). (Laboratory)
A shortened term which refers to a "Rank-Cintel Flying Spot Scanner". This
is a telecine device which transfers a film image into electronic signals
which are then recorded on to video tape.
A shot of a player listening while another player's voice continues on the
sound track. (Production)
An open faced 1K lighting unit. Also known as a 'Mickey'. (Lighting)
The production of a copy of a film which is of a smaller size or gauge
than the original (i.e. 35mm to 16mm). This is done of an optical printer.
Editing of shots for the purposes of comparison or for the contrast of
content. (Film Editing)
The general distribution of a film for public exhibition.
A duplicate negative from which release prints are made. (Film Editing)
The process of mixing all edited music, effects and dialog tracks of a
film or video production to mono, stereo, multichannel or whatever audio
format is desired for the final print master.
The process of regulating tape speed by comparing a reference signal on
the tape with an external reference and adjusting the speed so that they
The presence or persistence of sound due to repeated reflections.
A film that is manufactured and processed in such a way as to produce a
positive image after exposure. (Film Editing)
A second generation duplicate which is reversed to make it the same type,
negative or positive, as the original. It is used for printing in order to
protect the original. (Film Editing)
A reversal film designed to be exposed in a camera. (Film Editing)
An optical effect in which the action appears backwards from its
chronological sequence. (Laboratory)
A shot that is turned approximately 180 degrees in relation to the
preceding shot. (Cinematography)
A hard backlight, is generally on the same level as the subject, that
casts more light than the key light. (Lighting)
(1) A cylindrical metal device placed betwen the dolly head and the camera
base to raise the camera. (2) A prebuilt platform used to raise the set,
camera, or lights. (Grip/Lighting)
Effective sound pressure. (Acoustics)
The "noise" of a room, set or location where dialog is recorded during
Production. Used by film and dialog editors as a "bed" to form a continuous
tone through a particular scene. This is often confused with ambience, which
might be sound effects and/or reverberation added when the dialog is mixed.
A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid
out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention
to the individual cutting points. (Film Editing)
Run of the Picture:
A cast member whose work may be required any of the days scheduled for
principal photography without incurring liability for additional compensation.
This refers to daily prints of a film used for evaluation purposes.
The original-music composition for a motion picture or television
production which is generally recorded after the picture has been edited.
A metal 'window screen' that can be placed in front of a lighting unit to
decrease the lighting intensity by a predetermined amount. (Grip/Lighting)
Moving a piece of tape or magnetic film back and forth over a sound head
to locate a specific cue or word.
A mechanical control for scrubbing film or magnetic tape.
Sony Dynamic Digital Sound System. A film sound format which encodes eight
tracks of digital audio outside of the sprocket holes on both edges of a film
A photographic team that shoots scenes which do not involve the principal
cast, such as stunts, car chases, or establishing shots.
A 5K fresnel lighting unit. (Lighting)
A braced junior stand sufficiently rugged for large lights such as a 5K,
10K, or 'Big Eye'. (Grip/Lighting)
An indication of recording or playback efficiency as might be measure of a
microphone or audio tape recorder.
The hardware or software based brain of a MIDI studio. It receives, stores
and plays back MIDI information in a desired sequence.
Items of decoration which are not designated in the script or by the
director as part of specific action. (Production)
Each discrete position of the camera, excluding those in which a dolly or
crane is used to move the camera during filming. (Production)
A grip reflector used for reaiming sunlight to provide a key or fill
A highly directional microphone, usually with a long, tubular body; used
by the production sound mixer on location or on the set for film and
A white artists' cardboard which is used as a reflector or for making
other special rigs. It is easily cut and formed. (Grip/Lighting)
A splitter that divides a power line into two parts. (Grip/Lighting)
An exaggerated hissing in voice patterns. (Post Production)
A device which cuts the light from the side of a lighting unit, usually a
flag or a cutter. (Grip/Lighting)
An imaginary line that is drawn between a subject and the object that
he/she is looking at.
A lighting diffusion or reflective material, formerly real silk.
A shot with only one subject in the frame. (Production)
The form of variation with time of a wave whereby information is conveyed
in some form whether it is acoustic or electronic.
Signal to Noise Ratio:
This is the ratio of the desired signal to the unwanted noise in an audio
or video record/playback system.
Magnetic film that contains a single audio track, which is coated with
A method of recording sound and picture on the same medium, most typically
used in news gathering.
An optical printing effect which eliminates selected frames of the
original scene to speed up the action. (Laboratory)
The identifier placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take.
An audio tape or videotape transport, projector or mag film dubber whose
movements follow the movement of a single master transport. Accomplished
electronically by using SMPTE time code numbers or mechanically by motor
linkage of sprocketed machines.
A strip of blank leader or image-bearing film used as leader. (Film
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.
SMPTE Time Code:
Also known as Longitudinal Time Code. A high frequency signal that allows
the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment. Locator information
is displayed as numbers.
A multi-channel audio cable intended for use with microphone level signals
and/or line level signals. (Audio/Video/Electronics)
A film sound specialist responsible for the development and augmentation
of all soundtrack material, or a significant portion thereof, and is
ultimately in charge of the entire sound production. Occasionally, it is used
to refer to a person who is responsible for creating unique sounds or sound
elements which are incorporated into a sound track. (Sound)
A recorded or electronically produced sound that matches the visual action
taking place onscreen.
Sound Master Positive:
A sound print on made from the sound negative for producing duplicate
negatives of the sound record track for release printing.
The person responsible for capturing sound as it plays out live,
determining microphone types and placement. (Sound)
A negative sound image on film which is obtained by exposure through a
positive sound image.
A method in which previously recorded sound on one track is rerecorded
onto another track while new material is added.
Any positive sound track print which is obtained by printing from a sound
negative, or direct positive recording. or by the reversal process from
Generically refers to the music contained in a film, though it literally
means the entire audio portion of a film, video or television production,
including effects and dialog.
A hub placed between reels on rewinders to keep the reels in the proper
position to feed into, or take up from, a synchronizer. (Film Editing)
A term used to describe highly directional, focused light. This is often
perceived as a very 'hard' light. (Lighting)
Speed of sound:
The velocity of sound in air is 770 mi/hr. This speed however, is
influenced by temperature and air pressure. (Acoustics)
Light that is escaping from the sides of a lighting unit, or any light
that is falling where it is not wanted. (Grip/Lighting)
The act of joining two pieces of film by any of several methods. (Film
An optical or special effects shot in which two separate images are
combined on each frame.
A flanged roll on which film is wound for general handling or projection.
On a lensed light, the smallest beam spread. (Lighting)
Used in scoring and sound effects editing to identify the specific scenes
or points where music cues or effects cues will take place. Usually, this will
include information on length and style.
A toothed driving wheel used to move film through various machines by
engaging with the perforated holes in film stock.
A distribution box with six pockets for stage plug connectors.
A deep sound in a small room or booth from low frequency caused by long
waves with short reflection patterns. (Post Production)
A printer in which each frame of the negative and raw stock is stationary
at the time of exposure. (Laboratory)
A single extension cord. Most often referred to a single 'hot' extension
that is left lying around for occassional use. (Grip/Lighting)
A general term for motion picture film, particularly before it is exposed.
Edge numbers provided on film raw stock by the manufacturer.
An optical printing effect in which a single frame image is repeated in
order to appear stationary when it is projected. This may also refer to a
camera technique in which only one frame at a time is exposed.
The breakdown process of a camera position, location, or set.
A term for a distribution wiring connector with male plugs at both ends,
Sound that is reproduced through speakers above or behind the audience.
Enhancing the sound of a recording or a particular sound effect with
equalization or some other signal processing device.
Sync Beep (sync tone):
In double system shooting with certain cameras, a tone feed into a
magnetic tape recorder at the same time that a light in the camera exposes a
few frames of film. The fogged section is later aligned with the beep tone to
achieve synchronization of the sound to the picture.
Assembling, for synchronous interlock, the picture and sound workprints of
a day's shooting. (Film Editing)
A true f/stop as opposed to one dereived mathematically. It is the actual
light transmission of a lens as measured on an optical bench. (Camera)
Leader used at the finish end of a strip of film. (Film Editing)
Reducing the light on an object by means of nets, scrims, dimmers or
wasting light. (Grip/Lighting)
A machine that transfers film to a video signal. This also generically
refers to the process of film-to-tape transfers.
A preliminary mixing of dialogue, music, and sound effects, usually so
that a first cut may be viewed with all of these elements incorporated. (Post
A standard studio 10K lighting unit, as opposed to a baby 10 or a Big Eye,
which are also 10K lighting units. (Lighting)
A theatrical film exhibition sound system which maintains a consistent
sound standard from theatre to theatre. Generally, this system uses Dolby
Stereo Surround as the basis of the exhibition standard, although a number of
other systems have also now qualified. (Sound)
A power feed obtained by temporarily clipping on to the main service of a
location. This methodology is illegal in many areas. (Lighting)
Time Base Signal:
A signal recorded on the edge of film in a camera to match a signal
recorded on a magnetic recording which is used as a fast means of
synchronizing film and sound workprints.
Also known as Longitudinal Time Code. A high frequency signal that allows
the accurate "locking" of film audio and video equipment.
The process of selecting the printing values for color and density of
successive scenes in a complete film in order to produce a desired visual
A short publicty film which advertises a film or forthcoming
A process shot in which foreground action is superimposed on a separately
photographed background by an optical printer. (Laboratory)
Portions of a scene left over after the selected section has been used in
A tubular, extending device which is generally used for suspending lights
from set walls. (Grip/Lighting)
A flat, on the floor mount, for large lights with a junior receiver.
The area of a filmed image which will normally appear on a home television
set after a film has been transferred in a telecine and then transmitted.
A device similar to a slip pin connector, which is used on a feeder cable,
and which has a positive twist connection. (Lighting)
A simmer that reduces the voltage. It stands for VARIable AC. (Lighting)
Increasing or decreasing tape speed to match the musical pitch of tape
A trade name for a mechanical counter which is actuated using a rotary
shaft movement which can be calibrated to any system of measurement such as
feet or frames. (Film Editing)
The process of simultaneously recording filmed picture onto video tape by
means of the same lens system in order to immediately evaluate a take as soon
as it is completed. (Production)
Magnetic tape onto which nothing has yet been recorded.
Vertical Interval Time Code. A time code signal that is written in the
vertical interval by the rotating video heads, allowing it to be read when the
tape is not moving. Requires special equipment to read and write.
Narration or non-synchronous dialog taking place over the action onscreen.
A meter designed to measure audio level in volume units which generally
correspond to perceived loudness. (Audio)
Background ambience or noises added to create the illusion of sound taking
place outside of the main action in a picture.
Shining a light on an object, then slowing turning the light away so that
some of the light will miss or fall off the object. (Lighting)
A regular variation in electrical signal level or sound pressure level.
Wood wedges cut from 2x4 lumber which is used for leveling and stablizing.
A plywood dolly, with four large soft tires, which is used as a camera
dolly on smooth floors or on plywood. It is also used to transport other
A section of feeder cable siamesed off the main line to a secondary
A signal having an equal amount of energy per hertz.
A general term for film presentation in which a film is shown in an aspect
ratio of greater than 1.33 to 1. In today's terms, this now means in an aspect
ratio of greater than 1.85 to 1.
A line of dialoge, recorded either on set or at a looping stage, without
any picture running.
Audio elements that are not recorded synchronously with the picture.
An optical transition effect in which one image is replaced by another
with a boundry edge that moves in a selected pattern across the frame.
Any positive duplicate picture, sound track print, or magnetic duplicate
which is intended for use in the editing process. (Film Editing)
This term generally refers to a disk-based audio recording and editing
Repetitive but slow variations in recording or playback tape speed.
Wow and Flutter:
The deviation of frequency resulting from irregular motion in the
recording or from deformation of the recording medium. (Acoustics)
The span of the tape path along which the tape and head are in contact.
(Audio/Video) More often, this refers to securing equipment at the end of the
day or when work is completed at a particular set or location.
The 'timing lights' that the negative is printed at, representing the
numerical value of the red, blue and green lights used in the printing
process. These printing lights are referred to by their complements: yellow,
magenta, and cyan.
A method of preparing A and B rolls for printing in which the original
shots overlap several frames or more. The change from one roll to another to
match the edited workprint is done automatically by the printer. (Film
An optical effect in which the image rapidly grows larger or smaller as
though the camera is moving closer or away from its subject.
Your COMMENTS & QUESTIONS are encouraged!
You may address questions, comments, observations, corrections, and/or bug
Any suggested additions to this dictionary will be greatly appreciated. To
submit suggested terms for inclusion here, simply provide the word and its
definition by e-mail, along with your own e-mail address for verification
purposes. Slang words will also be considered so long as it is not something
offensive or particularly unique to a given region.